Check Groundwater Using Satellites 🛰️
Check Groundwater Using Satellites
Google Earth Engine 🛰️⭐
Groundwater plays a crucial role in meeting the water requirement .Water is one of the most important elements in our national developmental planning for the 21st century. The proper management of our limited water resources will be essential to ensure food security to eliminate poverty. And also to avoid the growing conflicts and possibility of social unrest in future due to water scarcity .
Groundwater resources play a vital role in sustaining livelihoods. The ubiquitous occurrence, reliability and availability in all seasons have made them the primary buffer against drought. It has an important role in meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industrial and domestic sectors in India. About 85% of India’s drinking water supplies and 60% of its irrigation requirements are dependent on groundwater resources.
If current trends continue, 60% of all the groundwater aquifers of India will be in critical condition by 2032 . India is the largest user of groundwater in the world . Groundwater is an annually replenishable resource but its availability is non-uniform in space and time.
It is a common-pool resource used by millions of farmers across the country. Hence, managed by both government and private entities. Nature and relative ease access groundwater as the backbone of India’s agriculture and drinking water. It remains the only drinking water source for most of India’s rural households. With an estimated 30 million groundwater structures, India is fast hurtling towards a serious crisis of groundwater overuse and quality deterioration. The report of the Expert Group on Groundwater Management and Ownership of the Planning Commission (2007) states that in 2004, 28% of India’s blocks show high levels of groundwater use.
A study under the GRACE satellite mission (NASA) and hydrological models indicated that the northern India region and surroundings lost groundwater at a rate of 54±9 km3/year between April 2002 and June 2008. Probably the largest rate of groundwater loss in any region of comparable area on earth attributes excessive extraction. In addition to depletion, many parts of India report severe water quality problems.
Kerala ,a tiny strip of land located at the south-western tip between North latitudes 80 18´ and 120 48´ and East longitudes 740 52´ and 770 22´, occupying only 1.2% of India’s land area. Kerala forms only 1.2% of the total area of India (3,287,263 km2), 3% of the country’s population inhabits the state. As per the 2011 Census, about 62% of the population of Kerala depends on groundwater for the purpose of drinking alone. The latest estimate of the Groundwater Resource Potential of Kerala by the Groundwater Evaluation Committee indicates that the total available resource 6029 Mm3 and the average level of development 47% annually.
Development level highest in Kasaragod district (71%) and lowest in Wayanad district (17%). The long-term groundwater levels during the pre-monsoon period show a predominantly rising trend in Kerala. However, the Kerala Water Authority (KWA) reported that during the year 2003, 48% of the wells in the state dried up during the summer.
The state of Kerala, once considered water rich, is increasingly facing seasonal water scarcity.
Kerala State, with average annual rainfall exceeding 3000 mm, 44 rivers traversing it and a large number of surface water bodies. Sustainability and equitability of water is ensured by cultural adaptation to water availability through water conservation technologies, agricultural systems and conservation-based life styles. However, in spite of the availability of freshwater in sufficient quantities, incidents of water scarcity
The most abundant source of freshwater on earth, accounting for approximately 97% of non-frozen fresh water. Groundwater sustains ecosystems, maintains base flow of rivers and stabilizes land in areas with easily compressed soils. The natural storage of groundwater buffers the impacts resulting from long-term and short-term climatic variations.
Approximately 50% of the world’s population drinks groundwater every day, especially the rural populations . Overall, the economic benefits of abstracting groundwater exceed those of surface water per unit volume.
Groundwater naturally buffers against climate variability and plays an important role in disaster risk management .
The traditional homestead type of habitation in Kerala is generally characterized by a well in each compound . The well density in Kerala is very high which increases to above 400 wells/km2 in certain stretches of coastal areas. 65% of the rural households and 59% of the urban households depend on wells for the purpose of their drinking water needs. In addition, 50% of the irrigation requirements also depend on groundwater.
The hydrological cycle denotes the circulation of water from the oceans to the atmosphere, the atmosphere to the lithosphere, and lithosphere to the oceans through complex and interdependent processes including precipitation, runoff, groundwater flow, evaporation, transpiration, etc.
The part of the precipitation reaching the ground may be absorbed, evaporated, transpired by plants, or may flow over ground. The water absorbed in the ground infiltrates downward to reach the saturated groundwater. It completes the hydrological cycle by emergence as springs or by subsurface flow into oceans. The region of Kerala flanked by the Western Ghats and Lakshadweep shows characteristic hydrological cycle dominated by high monsoonal rainfall. Kerala receives the highest Annual Average Rainfall (AAR) of 3070 mm among the 35 agro-climatic zones of India based on rainfall data for the last 100 years.
On an average, Kerala receives about 70% of the AAR during the southwest monsoon (SWM) , 16% during the northeast monsoon, 1% during the winter , and 13% during summer months . Southern Kerala receives almost comparable rainfall during both the monsoons, northern Kerala devoid of significant rainfall after the SWM. Therefore, northern Kerala experiences water shortage long before the summer sets in.
Anything ? Ask
Whatever your doubt, sahara Grounwaters will answer it as best we can because doubt leads to answer and answer to truth.